Tuesday, August 28, 2012

How to Use Library

How to Use Library

Library and its employees help readers and users in locating and finding out readings materials/resources. Readers and users should be aware of the usage of these materials without much assistance in order to save times. This is only possible if readers/users are acquainted themselves with rules of library organization and management. The following will help readers/users find their way and resources easily and promptly in the library. A library has different sections, such as 1) Lending Section, 2) Processing/Technical Section, 3) Documentation Section, 4) Reference Section, 5) Purchase Section etc.

Books /reading materials stocked in the Lending Section are issued to members and users for fixed period time and are taken return from members. Materials are kept in the Reference Section for consultation in the library only. In the exceptional situation, they are allowed to be taken outside of the library. Reference Section of the library contains collections like reference materials such current periodicals, bound volumes of back periodicals, dictionary, encyclopedias, reports, yearbook, directories, abstracts, catalogs etc.

Book is assigned an identification number and kept on the right shelf. This number is marked on the spine and on a certain page inside the book. There are some numbers of tools/ways for classifying books. DDC (Dewey Decimal Classification) is the most widely used classifying tool. Under this tool, all human knowledge is divided into the following 10 major classes.

1) 000=Generalities
2) 100=Philosophy and its Related Disciplines
3) 200=Religion
4) 300=Social Science
5) 400= Language
6) 500=Pure Science
7) 600=Technology (Applied Science)
8) 700= Arts
9)  800=Literature (Bells-letters, satire)
10) 900= General Geography, History and Their Auxiliary Fields

Each major class is divided into 10 major disciplines or a group related to disciplines which are called subdivisions. Again a subdivision is divided into 10 classes. For more extension of class, decimal expansion is used.

Each library has a stock of books on different subjects. So it is necessary to make difference them in some way. This is performed by assigning each book a call number which is combined of the class number and book number. Book number consists of the first letter or two in the author last name and a number from the Cutter-Sanborn Table, arranged alphabetical order.

Readers /users have to consult catalos (Card Catalog or Online Catalog) to find out what a library has in stock. Each book can be searched and found by searching catalogs through author, title or subject. Applications of communication technologies in the library have made easy access to library materials/resources.

Monday, August 27, 2012

Digital Library

Digital Library

A Digital Library is a Library in which collection is stored and managed in digital format. Digital Library is contrary to Traditional Library (as opposed to keeping print books, journals, periodicals, company reports, magazines, monograph, maps, atlas etc in physically on shelf) and can be accessed by computers.

Digital Library contents can be stored locally and can be accessed remotely from anywhere of the world via computer network with internet. A Digital Library is one kind of information retrieval system and technique. Term Digital Library can be applied for a wide range of collections and organizations and that needs to be considered a Digital Library and its Online Collections will be accessible to community of user.

Academic Library and other type of Library are building Institutional Repository of the institution's print books, journals, maps, papers, theses, monographs, and other intellectual works which can be digitized and make accessible to the general public with rules, regulations and some restrictions. Accessing and using of a Digital Library and its online content are dependent on the steady and strong Information Technology Infrastructure, such as computer, communication links, power, etc.

Sunday, August 26, 2012

Library and Its Usage

Library and Its Usage


Library is a collection of books and other reading resources (e.g. journal, film in cd/dvd format, periodical, magazine, monograph etc) on various subjects. Library means a house or buildings or some floors of a building where books and other reading resources are kept systematically and orderly on the shelf for using/reading by users or readers. Libraries are of 2 (two) kinds, namely 1) Private or Personal Library and 2) Public Library in sense of funding and maintenance. A Personal Library is an individual affair and is maintained by a person’s own fund/money for his/her own use. The collection of such Library is built according to his/her interest, taste and requirement. On the contrary, Public Library is funded and maintained by Government/Government body/Authorities and collection of this type Library is made according to their various requirements. Public Libraries are attached to educational institutions like School, College and University and these Libraries are financed & maintained by the Authority or donation and subscription.

There is also National Library such as Public Library in each country. Rare books are found in National Library. National Library has great value for researchers and it is managed and financed by Government.

Usage of Library

Library is essential for people who boast of culture. Great minds speak to us through books. A Library is capable to make us familiar with culture of all ages. It gives us easy and open entry to wisdom and knowledge of ages. Library is the “Life Center” of a nation. People come to Library for learning as well as mind’s relaxation.

Library helps to spread and foster of knowledge and culture in the society. Library is an indispensable part of human civilization. Progress and prosperity of a country can be judged by number of Libraries that the country owns and maintains. Library leads to intellectual progress of a Nation. 

Friday, August 24, 2012

Mobile/Cellular Phone and Its Applications

Mobile/Cellular Phone and Its Applications

Mobile Phone/Cellular Phone

Mobile phone or Cellular Phone (also known as cell phone) is rapidly becoming the superb device which can make telephone calls and receive telephone calls over the radio/wireless link through a cellular network.
Innovation and growth on the mobile phone are rapid. Now mobile’s processing power and storage are available in computers. Mobile phone has started functioning more than just a communication device. Mobile serves as alarm clock and calculator.

Applications/Usage of Mobile Phone

Mobile phone or Cellular Phone has multifaceted applications/functions/advantages which are given below.
1)    Making and receiving telephone calls ( for business, family and friends)
2)    Sending SMS text message & MMS
3)    Digital Camera (Capturing pictures)
4)    Audio Recorder (Can be used for recording conversations)
5)    Video Recorder (Can be used as video camera)
6)    Email Client Service ( Can be used to connect to any POP/IMAP Server for Email Service-receiving & sending Email)
7)    Web Client Service ( Can be used to browse websites via WAP/HTML)
8)    Gaming Platform ( Can be used as game playing device)
9)    Music Player (Can be used as music player like MP3)
10)    TV (Can be used as Television/TV over the network like EDGE)
11)    Wallet (Can be used wallet to pay for purchase bill like credit/debit card)
12)    Mobile Banking (Can be used for providing mobile banking service for cash depositing and withdrawing through text message/SMS)
13)    Tracking Geographical Location (Can be used to determine geographical location) etc.

All types of mobile /cell phones are not equipped with above mentioned applications/functions/advantages. There is also a possibility of risk on human central nervous system through producing radiation. The risk of such is applicable for both men and women.

Mobile phone or cell phone is being used for a variety of purposes including keeping in touch with family members and friends, conducting business, and having access to a telephone in the event of an emergency. Cell phone has made ease of our everyday life.

Computer and Its Usage

Computer and Its Usage


Computer is the new miracle of modern science. It is an instrument or a tool for executing mathematical operations by mechanical/ electrical means or combination of both. Computer also means the person one who computes. Computer has added new value and dimension in the development and for human society. It has several functions and it is able to perform mathematical functions, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, comparison and so on. A computer executes three (3) functions, namely,

1) Input (Receiving data)
2) Process data (Processing data by computations) and
3) Output (Emitting data)

Computer can make thousands of calculations in a moment. It can store millions of data, facts and figures in its memory as well as can recall these in demand. 

Usage of Computer

Computer is a very useful apparatus. It is being used in both Government Offices, Departments and in Private Organizations & Firms. Computers are used in libraries, banks, offices, airlines, shops, medical, hospitals, research everywhere.

Computer is now being used in Printing Industry extensively. Any kind of printing (books, journals, periodicals, newspapers, pamphlets, monographs, booklets, brochures, newsletters etc) can be published within a short time with help of computers. In this way, computers help us to spread knowledge widely. Computer has also the negative sides/ destructive sides which depend on the users of computers. Negative application of computers needs to be given up for sake of human welfare.

Computer is very essential component of our everyday business/commerce work. In every step of commerce/business, we need assistance of the computers.

Thursday, August 23, 2012

Internet Marketing

Internet Marketing

Internet Marketing is an activity of doing business through internet including its components like PPC, SEO, Social Media (Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, My space etc.), Blogs, Forums, and many more.

Internet Marketing has radically changed the way of doing business/commerce and their marketing plan and strategy. Internet marketing rules are different from the traditional marketing rules and Internet marketing has many benefits over traditional marketing. Internet Marketing is influenced by the following strategy.

1) Advertizing
2) Promotion
3) Public Relations (PR)
4) Sales

Internet marketing is a multifaceted technique. It needs various methods to reach to customers, such as:

1) Websites
2) Blogs
3) Forums
4) Social Media
5) Podcast
6) Videos
7) Videos Blogs
8) Computers (Desktop/Laptop) etc.

Through these tools, Internet Marketers/Companies/Business Organizations/Organizations can reach to customers/targeted audiences and can make profits.

Online Business

Online Business
Online Business means EBusiness and it is defined as application of ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) in everyday business/commerce. Online Business helps to work closely with suppliers, vendors, customers and partners. Online Business is a way to sell , market and advertize of business/commerce goods and services. A website/site and computers are prerequisite for Online Business. 

Like Traditional Business, success of Online Business is related with customers and stakeholders. Online Business’s Customers come in the form of website/site visitors/viewers. Large amount of traffic will have the possibility to create the higher chance of visitors and become these visitors as customers. Registering option with search engine and keyword use will lead to the most traffic to website/site.

An Online Business has to comply with special Laws and Regulations. Before starting and operating a specific online business, one must follow basic rules and regulations for becoming a successful business owner/entrepreneur.

Wednesday, August 22, 2012

Email Marketing

Email Marketing

Email plays a vital role in everybody’s live including business and commerce. As an Ecommerce Tool/Online Marketing Tool, Email enables us to communicate with employees, suppliers, vendors, customers. So it’s important to use Email effectively and efficiently to market, advertize and promote business and commerce to stakeholders. 

A large number of people who have access to Internet are capable to reach to a greater number of people/customers using Email Marketing/Online Marketing. So email has been one of the means of communication tool. Email marketing is the action of sending emails to customers (both existing and prospective/potential) and receiving Emails/Email Orders from customers. Email Marketing works for Business and Commerce.



Cycling is called bicycling or biking and it is the use of bicycles for transports, recreations or for sports. Person who is engaged in cycling is Cyclist or Bicyclist

Benefits of Cycling

Cycling is an effective mode of transportation and it has abundant benefits in comparing to motor operated vehicle which are as follow:

1) Cycling is one of the easiest ways to exercise
2) Cycling has no fuel consumption
3) Cycling has no air pollution
4) Cycling has easier parking and has access to both road and path
5) Cycling reduces stress
6) Cycling eats up calories
 7) Cycling improves heart health
8) Cycling builds stamina
9) Cycling improves health coordination
10) Cycling increases muscle tone
11) Cycling improves cardio-vascular fitness etc.

Cycling Apparels& Wears

There are different types and brands of cycling cloths like as follows:
1) Cycling jerseys
2) Cycling shorts
3) Cycling shoes

Cycling/bicycling is the inexpensive mode of transport and it has various benefits to human beings as well as human society.

Library is Knowledge Center and It Needs Access to Online Resources

Library is as Knowledge Center and is Needed for Accessing Online Resources

Modern Library is treated as Knowledge Center of all kinds and  we know from where we can find information.
This is justified by the quotation:

Knowledge is of two kind:we know a subject ourselves, or we know where we can find information on it.

-Samuel Johnson

Internet is a computer-based worldwide information network.World Wide Web or WWW(W3) is a set programs and rules that fix how files are created and shown on the Internet.If we want to see information offered at a particular site,we can enter the site's address on the computer screen and be connected there.We can access certain Online Resources/Online Reference Resource Sources (such as Online Journal, Book, Magazine, Periodical,Serial, Case Study etc.).Some of these resources are free and to gain access to others, we have to subscribe and pay a fee for the cost of Online Resources/Services.

If we don't have a certain address in our mind, we can search by KEYWORD with the assistance of a search engine.

Search Engine is a type of software that uses our KEYWORD to compile lists of related Websites.There are many kinds of search engines available and they offer in some what different services.

Online Knowledge means- Know how to find our desired information on the web. We can use websites to find out more Online Resources on the Web about World for our own applications as we need.